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 , ࠠ ࠠ 頠 , , , , ࠠ 砠 ⠠ 䠠 堠 , 堠 蠠 . 蠠 , 堠 , ꠠ  ꠠ 젠 . 蠠 堠 ⠠ 頠  .

ʠ 젠 젠 ꠠ , 堠 蠠 ⠠ 頠 頠 蠠 ᠠ ⠠ 堠1896 .  . 12 : 頠 ,  , 頠 ,  , 頠 , , 頠 , 頠 , 頠 , ( ) , 렠 , (1). 蠠 蠠 堠 堠 蠠 2- 6- 蠠 2- 4-. (ࠠ 堠 ࠠ ,  ࠠ ). 젠 頠 ꠠ   ?  렠 蠠 ? ⠠ 頠 蠠 . 堠 ?

堠 , 蠠 堠 ,  堠 ࠠ ,  蠠 蠠 蠠 . Ƞ  蠠 . 蠠 . : ࠠ .  , 젠 堠  󠠠 堠 . 렠 젠 젠 .   렠 Ġ . Ӡ  蠠 6 , - 3 (2). 蠠 蠠 1678 - 1688 .

, () ? . ? ?

Ӡ 蠠 . ⠠ 堠 , .. 堠 蠠 젠 堠 젠  - . 頠 堠  , . .

, .

堠 蠠 󠠠 堠 . ࠠ 堠 頠 堠 蠠 . 堠 堠 蠠  39%  . 蠠 蠠 堠 , ꠠ ꠠ 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 . ⠠ ࠠ . 蠠 - . 蠠 堠 .

頠 ࠠ 堠 頠 - 堠 4- ࠠ 10- ( ࠠ , 젠 ). 蠠 젠 堠 .

頠 ࠠ ,  堠 .   젠 砠 蠠 蠠 堠 , 蠠 蠠  頠 .

  頠 蠠 86% 蠠  , 蠠 蠠  2,3% . 蠠 , , , . 堠 堠 ࠠ 堠  . ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ 頠 , (蠠 ), 蠠 ࠠ , ࠠ 堠 (3). 堠 堠 蠠 砠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 . 蠠 ⠠  . : ⠠ () ࠠ ࠠ 1705 䠠 , , ꠠ , 堠 蠠 젠 젠 堠 186 (1678 .). 堠 : ࠠ .  ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 , 頠 蠠 렠 . 堠 ,  , 蠠 , 蠠 . (  , 堠 蠠 , 蠠 ࠠ 6-20 蠠 蠠 󠠠 ). : 栠 堠 (4).

  堠 砠 . 蠠 堠 .  蠠 蠠 . 堠 堠 (3).

蠠 ࠠ ,  蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠 砠 蠠 - ⠠  ࠠ 䠠 16 18 (5). ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 () 堠 ࠠ 1705 ,  ,  ⠠ 堠 蠠  頠 . 蠠 : , , , , , , , , (4). 蠠 砠 :, , , Ը, , , , , , , ⠠ .

  17 堠 젠 ࠠ . Ѡ 1724 . 堠 , 堠 , 蠠 (蠠 ).  1724 . 蠠 蠠 19% , 1858 . 堠 45%.

頠 19 ,  堠 ࠠ   ,  ࠠ ⠠ ..  堠 堠 砠 頠 蠠 . ࠠ 堠 .   젠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 蠠 ⠠ 15 ࠠ 45 ࠠ ࠠ .   蠠 蠠 堠 . 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠  젠 . ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ 頠 .   頠 ꠠ 堠 堠   .   ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ 堠  (19).

堠 堠 ꠠ 堠 (堠 堠 ) (6). 蠠 . 砠 蠠 . 蠠 . 蠠 ᠠ .   ࠠ ࠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 ᠠ 젠 頠 , 頠 . .   18 1855.   堠 , 頠  , , 蠠 ⠠ - 頠 䠠  頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 (7).

堠 堠 蠠  , . , 頠 , 젠 ,  堠 蠠  蠠 ꠠ ( ⠠ ) (3). , ࠠ 젠 堠 ᠠ 堠 ⠠ 堠 堠 ⠠ 젠 ࠠ ࠠ 1880-1881 . (14).

蠠 ࠠ 렠 蠠 (). (ࠠ 1 ). ꠠ 砠 䠠 젠 蠠 蠠 蠠 (6).

, ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ :  堠 堠 堠 󠠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ . 񠠠 .

  頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 젠 . 蠠 ࠠ 15 . 1- 蠠 (8). 頠 렠 . ࠠ 蠠  .

1822 . , . (10) .  蠠 ࠠ 頠 ⠠ 500 600 򠠠 . ࠠ  . -  , , 堠  ࠠ 堠 . 頠 , ⠠ .   堠  堠 ,  蠠 ࠠ (16).

  - 1828 . , (). 䠠 堠 蠠 堠 . 堠 ࠠ ⠠ . 堠 堠 ⠠ ࠠ . 蠠  ⠠  ⠠ 堠 . 蠠 堠 蠠  ⠠ . 蠠 蠠 젠 (17).

堠  頠 頠 렠 젠 . 堠 ⠠ 젠 頠 頠 .   堠 ࠠ - .

堠 , 頠 , . 堠 ࠠ 堠 ⠠ ⠠ 蠠 蠠  2,7% (ࠠ 1894.) (9). 堠 堠   , ࠠ ࠠ 젠 .   帠 ࠠ  , ,  ࠠ 蠠 .

蠠 蠠 蠠 , 蠠 蠠 ࠠ . 렠 蠠 렠 . 렠 젠  蠠  렠 ࠠ 蠠 . 렠 砠 蠠 젠 7 9.    . 蠠 .  젠 㠠   . ࠠ 蠠  蠠 , 蠠 , 蠠 ⠠ . ࠠ 2 .  ࠠ 렠 , ࠠ 򠠠 - .(10).

堠 ,  砠 頠 , 蠠 젠 蠠 蠠 蠠 .

堠 蠠 . 蠠 蠠 , , 蠠 ࠠ .

  堠 ᠠ ⠠ 蠠 堠 . ࠠ 蠠  ࠠ ,  堠 堠 4- ⠠ .

Ѡ 蠠  ࠠ  , 󠠠 ⠠  ࠠ . 頠 ᠠ 렠  . 蠠 蠠 堠 蠠  ࠠ 蠠  50 . ࠠ  25 . ࠠ 䠠 .

蠠 ᠠ 蠠 堠  ⠠ ⠠ ࠠ , ࠠ 젠 ࠠ . ꠠ ⠠1882 . 蠠 , 堠 ࠠ 堠 頠 頠 1883. (11). 砠 10 򠠠 堠 .  頠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 堠 䠠 堠 頠 頠1894 . (12). 堠 蠠 ᠠ 젠 ࠠ 񠠠 50% (10).

蠠 , 蠠 렠 ⠠ . : ⠠1914 . 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ⠠  , ⠠ 1914-16 㠠 蠠 (13).

1- 렠 頠 㠠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 젠 ⠠ 䠠 .  1834 .  堠  ⠠ .     . 堠 堠 蠠 蠠  .  ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ  . 蠠 蠠 砠 .

堠  ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ 堠 ,  ࠠ 蠠 頠 . 頠 ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 .

堠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ  .  .   堠 堠 2/3  ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ . ᠠ  , 젠 堠 ⠠ .

堠 , ⠠1844 .   ,   젠 ࠠ 蠠 (15).

 蠠 堠 ⠠  頠 . 堠 ࠠ 堠  蠠  ⠠ 堠 . ࠠ ࠠ 18 ⠠ ⠠ 䠠 ࠠ . 堠   ࠠ 栠 蠠 ࠠ .

頠 䠠 렠 񠠠  ࠠ .  堠 㠠 , ⠠ , ⠠ . 蠠 蠠   ⠠ 堠 . , ⠠ 젠 젠 堠 䠠 18.02.1896 ., ࠠ 젠 蠠 堠 堠 堠 頠 . ࠠ 堠  젠 젠  蠠  頠 蠠 18911892 . ,  堠 ࠠ ᠠ 㠠 ꠠ 堠 堠 3- . 蠠 젠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 - 蠠  ࠠ ( , 頠 , 頠 ) (18).

, 񠠠 젠 頠  ᠠ 砠  ࠠ ⠠ , 蠠 . Ƞ 1910 . 蠠 蠠 (10).

  堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠  堠 蠠 ⠠ 󠠠 .

.

1. Π .5,.1,.117,.65, 73, 75, 84, 86, 91,95,97,104.

2. , .214, .5, .261, .1023.

3. : 堠 堠 頠 .

4. : 堠 頠 . 頠 .

5. : 頠 䠠 頠 .

6. : . 堠 . .. 7. 堠 堠  .

7 Π .212, .156, .30 -35.

8 : ࠠ 蠠  19 ( 젠 頠 蠠 頠 ).

9. : 頠 . 堠 .

10. : .

11. Π .492, .1, .167.

12 Π .492,.1,.438.

13. .492,.1,.2927.

14. Π .473, .1, .513.

15. : 䠠 頠 . .. 頠 1- 2- ⠠   .

16. : ⠠ 蠠 .

17. : 򠠠 頠 .

18. Π .5,.1,.117,.61.

19. 7 2010 . . 11.

, .., 2010 . .



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